What Is the Net Book Value?

What Is the Net Book Value?

By Charles Joseph | Editor, Financial Affairs
Reviewed by Corey Michael | Senior Financial Analyst

Net Book Value, often abbreviated as NBV, is a key accounting measure that, quite simply, represents the current worth of an asset for a business. This value is determined by subtracting the accumulated depreciation (or amortization in the case of intangible assets) from the original cost of the asset. So, if the business purchased a machine for $10,000 five years ago, and it has depreciated by $6,000 till today, the Net Book Value of the machine would be $4,000. This number helps businesses understand the fair price if they were to sell the asset or if it were lost or damaged.

Related Questions

1. How is Net Book Value calculated?

The Net Book Value is calculated by subtracting the accumulated depreciation from the original purchase cost of the asset. So, NBV = original cost – accumulated depreciation.

2. What is the difference between Net Book Value and Market Value?

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Net Book Value is an accounting measure that reflects the original cost of the asset minus its depreciation. On the other hand, Market Value refers to the amount the asset could be sold for in the open market. These values could be same, different, or even exactly opposite, depending on several factors like demand and supply, the overall economic condition, and the specific condition of the asset.

3. What happens when Net Book Value is negative?

When the accumulated depreciation of an asset exceeds its original cost, it results in a negative Net Book Value. This often implies that the asset is fully depreciated and may be obsolete or non-functional.

4. How does Net Book Value impact a company’s balance sheet?

The Net Book Value of a company’s assets is reflected as “property, plant and equipment” or similar classifications on the balance sheet. This forms a major part of a company’s long-term assets and represents significant investment that the company has made to run its operations.

5. Can Net Book Value change over time?

Yes, the Net Book Value of an asset can change over time, primarily due to depreciation. With each accounting period, the asset depreciates, and this depreciation is subtracted from the original cost to determine the updated Net Book Value.